Saturday, July 13, 2013

Chronology of Mizo History (Pre - Modern Period)

A Queue of Mizo people for public feast (Ruaitheh) in rural Mizoram
According to Mr. B. Lalthangliana, a well known Mizo Historian, the Pre-Modern Mizo Historical Chronology are listed on the followings:

Early Home: Chhinglung/Sinlung:

2000 BC: Mizo ancestors along with other  Tibeto- Burman people lived in Kansu/Gansu province, North West China or North East Tibet.
4 BC: Mizo ancestors and Kachin ancestors were lived in Szechwan Province, China.
1 BC: Probabdly lived at the sources of  Mekhong and Yangtze river.

Settlement in Burma/Myanmar:

4 AD: Mizo ancestors along with other Tibeto-Burman people probably lived at Hukaung/Hukawng Valley (Kachin State in the northernmost part of Burma/Myanmar). It is assumed that during those days they were familiar with the Sanskrit word ‘Tangka’.
6 AD: Probably lived in Chindwin valley
800 - 850 AD: Reached and settled in Kabaw valley (western Sagaing division ),  also known as Kawlphai in Mizo tawng. Planted the famous legendary banyan tree of  Khampat bungpui.
1200 AD: Left Kabaw valley due to Shan invasion.
1250 - 1300 AD: Lusei lived in Thantlang and Run river areas.
1250 - 1300 AD: Paite reached Chimmnuai near Tiddim and built villages.
1350 AD: Maring tribes might be reached Maring.
1450 - 1500 AD:  Some Mizo tribes might be reached Tripura.
1450 - 1700 AD: Lusei lived in between Lentlang and Tiau river.
1500 AD: Anal tribe might be reached Manipur.
1520 - 1550 AD: Thingpui famine (Thingpui tam) at Sanzawl areas.
1600 AD: Khumi tribe might be reached Paletwa (Burma).
1650 - 1700 AD: Lusei crossed Tiau river
1720 – 1730 AD: Mara (Lakher) might be reached Chhimtuipui (Kolodyne)
1730 AD: Khumi might be reached Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh).
1740 – 1750 AD: Heyday of the famous Selesih Sangsarih (Town of Seven thousand households)
1750 AD: Thado-Kuki might be reached Manipur.
1750 – 1850 AD: Lai (Pawi) might be reached Mizoram.
1830 – 1850 AD: Hmar might be reached Manipur.
1849 – 1856 AD: Chhim leh Hmar indo (War between Southern and Northern Chiefs)

British Intervention:

1850 (14th January) AD: British invaded and burnt Sentlang Village.
1850 (October) AD: Mizo Chiefs – Suakpuilala, Vanhnuailiana, Vuttaia, Lalngura, Lalphunga sent emissary to Col. Lister, British army commander in Silchar. This was the first diplomatic interaction of Mizo Chief and British Colonial officials.
1854 AD: Khawnglung run (Khawnglung massacre)
1861- 1862 AD: First Bambo Famine (Mautam)
1866 AD: Capt. T.H Lewin (Thangliana) visited Chief Rothangpuia’s village at Chittagong Hill Tracts and had formal agreement.
1869 – 1870 AD: British armies came to invade Mizo Chiefs but they went back without success.
1870 (21st March) AD: Mizo Chief Suakpuilala and Mr. John Edgar ICS, Deputy Commissioner, Silchar had meeting regarding boundaries. This was the first official talks between Mizoram (then Lushai Hills) and Cachar boundaries.
1871 – 1872 AD: British Colonial Army led First Lushai Expedition of 1871 to 1872 under the command of Generals Brownlow and Bourchier. The objectives of the expedition were to rescue British subjects who had been captured by the Lushais in raids into Assam—including a six year old girl called Mary Winchester (Zoluti). This was known as ‘Vai Len’or ‘ Vai lian’ vawi khat (1) na in Mizo tawng.
1872 (17th February) AD: British army reached Champhai and left after four days. They hoisted Union Jack banner near the tombstone of Chief Vanhnuailiana.
1872 (17th February) AD: Chiefs – Sangvunga, Bengkhuaia and some other Chiefs met  British Army officer T.H Lewin  on banks of Tuidang river.
1872 (18th February) AD: Chief Rolura descendants and British army  make agreement and prior to this Chief Lianlula descendants also had agreement with British army. British army left southern Lushai Hills.
1872 (22nd November) AD: Chief Rothangpuia’s Village Lungno was visited by Gen. Brown Low and Capt. T.H. Lewin, they were given with warm reception with grand public feast.
1872 AD: Mizoram (Lushai Hills) and Tripura boundary finalised.
1877 – 1880 AD: Chhak leh Tlang indo (War between Eastern and Western Chiefs)
1880 AD: First Thingtam famine (Rawthing Bamboo famine) [Thingtam Vawi khat (1) na]
1881 AD: Bungkhaw run (Invasion of Bungkhua)
1884 AD: Arsi tlak kum (Great meteor)
1889 – 1890 AD: Second Lushai Expedition by British Colonial Army (Vailen/Vailian vawi hnih (2) na.
1889 (January) AD: British Army reached  Lunglei and they built a timber stockade known as 'Fort Lungleh'
1889 (3rd April) AD: Mizo Chiefs – Saipuia, Lalthangvunga, Lallunga, Sangliana, Lalruma took a pledge of loyalty to the British colonial government.
1890 (24th/25th  September) AD:  The famous Mizo warriors( Pasaltha) - Khuangchera and Ngurbawka were shot death by British army.
1890 (December) AD: Mizo Chiefs in western areas  surrendered to British army.
1890 AD: British colonial army started their permanent occupation in the then Lushai Hills (Mizoram).

Source:  B. Lalthangliana, India, Burma leh Bangladesh-a Mizo Chanchin (History and Culture of Mizo in India, Burma and Bangladesh). Published by Remkungi, Printed by RTM Press, Chhinga Veng, Aizawl, Mizoram, First Edition, 2001,

Mizoram landscape during Autumn, Hmuifang tlang.

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