Friday, July 19, 2013

Chronology of Mizo History (Modern Period)

Mizo woman in traditional attire 'kawrchei & puanchei'/ Mizo lady with cultural dress

In continuation of earlier post in this blog the followings Mizo historical chronology are largely listed by Mizo historian B.Lalthangliana and to enrich the chronological list the blog owner (me) also added some events/years by using other sources:

1891AD:  British colonial army capture control of the Mizoram (then Lushai Hills) area and merged it into Assam province.
1891 (13 Jan) AD: Mizo Chief (Lal) Kalkhama, Lianphunga and Thanghulha were sent to prison.
1891 AD: Welsh Missionary Rev. William Williams reached the then Lushai Hills (Mizoram), he was recognised as first Christian Missionay in Mizoram (Lushai Hills).
1892 (27-29 Jan) AD: Chin-Lushai Conference held at Fort William, Culcutta, the main reason of this conference is to merge all the Mizo tribes under one administrative umbrella but due to objection arose by Officers from Burma there meeting was concluded without success.
1892 (29 Feb - 12 April) AD: Lalvunga descendants fired army camp in Sesawng village under the guidance of Chief Lalburha.
1892 (16 March) AD: To protect their land Chief Vansanga and his allies fought against British army in Chhipphir village and capture back for almost one month.
1892 AD: British army extended  Falam area.
1893 (Aug) AD: Chief Ropuiliani and her son Lalthuama arrested.
1893 (Aug) AD: Southern Chiefs agreed to follow British suzerainty.
1893- 1894 AD: British extended Mindat area.
1894 (11 Jan) AD: Rev. F.W. Savidge(Sap Upa) and Rev. J.H. Lorrain (Pu Buanga), commissioned by Arthington Aborigines Mission, reached Mizoram(Lushai Hills) and in the same year for the first time in Mizoram (Lushai Hills) they started school in McDonald Hill, Aizawl (Aijal).
1894 AD: British extended Halkha area.
1895 AD: Soutern and Nothern Mizoram (Lushai Hills) areas clapped together under one administrative set up. Tlabung (Demagiri) also included. 
1895 (22 Oct) AD: Published first book in Mizo language  'Mizo Zir Tir Bu (A Lushai Primer).
1895 (Dec) AD: Mizo Chiefs in eastern area were subdued.
1895 AD: Missionaries reached  Asho-Chin area.
1896 (15 March) AD: Rev.Arthur A.Carson and his wife Laura Hardin reached  Halkha area.
1896 AD: Sgt.Maj A.G.E Mewland developed Halkha writings.
1896 AD: Burma and Manipur boundary finalised. 
1897 (31 August) AD: Welsh Calvinistic Methodist's (later changed Presbyterian Church of Wales) missionary David Evan Jones (Zosaphluia) set foot on Mizoram and founded Presbyterian Church.
1898 AD: First Bible translation in Mizo language started and two Gospels - Luke & John  were published in Mizo language.
1898 AD: First Mizo magazine/newspaper 'Mizo Chanchin Laisuih' was published.
1899 AD: Thlichhetleh kum (Great Cyclone)
1900 AD: Mizoram (Lushai Hills) and Chin Hills boundary finalised.
1900 AD: First School in Chin Hills was started at Halkha village.
1901 AD: First Census in Lushai Hills (Mizoram)
1902 AD: Whole village of Sethlun was converted into Christianity.
1903 AD (1 August): First school in rural area was established at Khandaih (Phullen) village.
1904  (25 Jan) AD: First Baptist Church service started at Sethlun village under the guidance of Rev. F.W Savidge and Rev. J.H. Lorrain.
1907 AD: First Theological School started in Aizawl (Aijal).
1908 AD: First Middle School started in Mizoram (Lushai Hills)
1910 AD: Abolition of Slave (bawih) system in Lushai Hills (Mizoram)
1910 AD: Rev. Joseph Herbert Cope and his wife reached  Tiddim and started writings in Kamhau (Tiddim) and Laizo (Falam).
1911 AD: Second Bamboo Famine [Mautam Vawi hnih (2) na]
1911 AD:  First Issue of Kristian Tlangau published and Loch Printing Press (which was first Printing Press in Mizoram) launched in Mizoram (Lushai Hills).
1913 AD: First Mizo Pastor Chhuahkhama ordained.
1915 AD: Gospel Luke was published for the first time in Laizo language.
1916 (June) AD:  First New Testament Bible (Thuthlungthar bu) published in Mizo language.
1917  (26 April) AD: Lt. Kawlkhuma (first Mizo officer commissioned in S.A)  started Salvation Army ministry in Mizoram (Lushai Hills).
1925 AD: Roman Catholic Church started in Mizoram (Lushai Hills)
1929 AD: Minpui kum (Great landslide)
1930 AD: Second Thingtam  Famine (Famine of Rawthing Bamboo) {Thintam vawi hnih (2) na}
1935 AD: Young Mizo Association founded.
1945 AD: First political pary in Mizoram 'Mizo Union Party' was founded.
1950 (15 Feb) AD:  United Pentecostal Church (U.P.C) started in Mizoram.
1951  AD:  Thalai Kristian Pawl (T.K.P) founded.
1952 AD: Created Mizo District Council and first election of  Mizo District Council (MDC) held in Mizoram.
1953  (3 April) AD: Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru inaugurated Aizawl (Aijal) - Lunglei (Lungleh) road.
1954 AD: Discontinuation of Mizo Chiefs (Lal) and First election of  Village Council (V.C)
1957 (25 January) AD: Second Election of Mizo District Council (MDC)
1958-1959 AD: Third Bamboo Famine [Mautam vawi thum (3) na]
1959 AD: First full Bible in Mizo language was published.
1961 AD: Mizo National Front Party founded.
1966 AD: Mizo National Front under the leadership of Mr. Laldenga declared independent from India Union.
1970 AD: Third election of Mizo District Council (MDC)
1972 AD: Union Territory of Mizoram was created out of Assam state.
1986 AD: Mizo National Front and Govt. of India signed peace accord 
1987 (20 Feb) AD: Mizoram became the 23rd state of India Union.
1994 (11 Jan) AD: Mizoram celebrated Gospel Centenary
1996 AD: Mizoram government launched Mizoram Total Liquor Prohibition (MLTP) Act.
2001 (2 July) AD: Mizoram University founded.
2011 AD: Prof. R. Lalthantluanga became the first Mizo Vice Chancellor in Mizoram University.
2012 (20 Feb) AD: Mizoram attained 25th year of statehood in India union.
2013 (11 May) AD:  Landslide in Laipuitlang, Aizawl killed more than 15 human lives. 
2013 (May) AD: Mr. David Zohmangaiha (38) s/o K Zokhuma (L), Republic veng, Aizawl became  the first Mizo Mt.Everest submitter.

1. B. Lalthangliana, India, Burma leh Bangladesh-a Mizo Chanchin (History and Culture of Mizo in India, Burma and Bangladesh). Published by Remkungi, Printed by RTM Press, Chhinga Veng, Aizawl, Mizoram, First Edition, 2001,
3.  Lalremruata Colney blog

Bara Bazar, Aizawl Market, Dawrpui veng
Chawilung Village, Aizawl District
Typical Mizo House, Sialsuk village.

Saturday, July 13, 2013

Chronology of Mizo History (Pre - Modern Period)

A Queue of Mizo people for public feast (Ruaitheh) in rural Mizoram
According to Mr. B. Lalthangliana, a well known Mizo Historian, the Pre-Modern Mizo Historical Chronology are listed on the followings:

Early Home: Chhinglung/Sinlung:

2000 BC: Mizo ancestors along with other  Tibeto- Burman people lived in Kansu/Gansu province, North West China or North East Tibet.
4 BC: Mizo ancestors and Kachin ancestors were lived in Szechwan Province, China.
1 BC: Probabdly lived at the sources of  Mekhong and Yangtze river.

Settlement in Burma/Myanmar:

4 AD: Mizo ancestors along with other Tibeto-Burman people probably lived at Hukaung/Hukawng Valley (Kachin State in the northernmost part of Burma/Myanmar). It is assumed that during those days they were familiar with the Sanskrit word ‘Tangka’.
6 AD: Probably lived in Chindwin valley
800 - 850 AD: Reached and settled in Kabaw valley (western Sagaing division ),  also known as Kawlphai in Mizo tawng. Planted the famous legendary banyan tree of  Khampat bungpui.
1200 AD: Left Kabaw valley due to Shan invasion.
1250 - 1300 AD: Lusei lived in Thantlang and Run river areas.
1250 - 1300 AD: Paite reached Chimmnuai near Tiddim and built villages.
1350 AD: Maring tribes might be reached Maring.
1450 - 1500 AD:  Some Mizo tribes might be reached Tripura.
1450 - 1700 AD: Lusei lived in between Lentlang and Tiau river.
1500 AD: Anal tribe might be reached Manipur.
1520 - 1550 AD: Thingpui famine (Thingpui tam) at Sanzawl areas.
1600 AD: Khumi tribe might be reached Paletwa (Burma).
1650 - 1700 AD: Lusei crossed Tiau river
1720 – 1730 AD: Mara (Lakher) might be reached Chhimtuipui (Kolodyne)
1730 AD: Khumi might be reached Chittagong Hill Tracts (Bangladesh).
1740 – 1750 AD: Heyday of the famous Selesih Sangsarih (Town of Seven thousand households)
1750 AD: Thado-Kuki might be reached Manipur.
1750 – 1850 AD: Lai (Pawi) might be reached Mizoram.
1830 – 1850 AD: Hmar might be reached Manipur.
1849 – 1856 AD: Chhim leh Hmar indo (War between Southern and Northern Chiefs)

British Intervention:

1850 (14th January) AD: British invaded and burnt Sentlang Village.
1850 (October) AD: Mizo Chiefs – Suakpuilala, Vanhnuailiana, Vuttaia, Lalngura, Lalphunga sent emissary to Col. Lister, British army commander in Silchar. This was the first diplomatic interaction of Mizo Chief and British Colonial officials.
1854 AD: Khawnglung run (Khawnglung massacre)
1861- 1862 AD: First Bambo Famine (Mautam)
1866 AD: Capt. T.H Lewin (Thangliana) visited Chief Rothangpuia’s village at Chittagong Hill Tracts and had formal agreement.
1869 – 1870 AD: British armies came to invade Mizo Chiefs but they went back without success.
1870 (21st March) AD: Mizo Chief Suakpuilala and Mr. John Edgar ICS, Deputy Commissioner, Silchar had meeting regarding boundaries. This was the first official talks between Mizoram (then Lushai Hills) and Cachar boundaries.
1871 – 1872 AD: British Colonial Army led First Lushai Expedition of 1871 to 1872 under the command of Generals Brownlow and Bourchier. The objectives of the expedition were to rescue British subjects who had been captured by the Lushais in raids into Assam—including a six year old girl called Mary Winchester (Zoluti). This was known as ‘Vai Len’or ‘ Vai lian’ vawi khat (1) na in Mizo tawng.
1872 (17th February) AD: British army reached Champhai and left after four days. They hoisted Union Jack banner near the tombstone of Chief Vanhnuailiana.
1872 (17th February) AD: Chiefs – Sangvunga, Bengkhuaia and some other Chiefs met  British Army officer T.H Lewin  on banks of Tuidang river.
1872 (18th February) AD: Chief Rolura descendants and British army  make agreement and prior to this Chief Lianlula descendants also had agreement with British army. British army left southern Lushai Hills.
1872 (22nd November) AD: Chief Rothangpuia’s Village Lungno was visited by Gen. Brown Low and Capt. T.H. Lewin, they were given with warm reception with grand public feast.
1872 AD: Mizoram (Lushai Hills) and Tripura boundary finalised.
1877 – 1880 AD: Chhak leh Tlang indo (War between Eastern and Western Chiefs)
1880 AD: First Thingtam famine (Rawthing Bamboo famine) [Thingtam Vawi khat (1) na]
1881 AD: Bungkhaw run (Invasion of Bungkhua)
1884 AD: Arsi tlak kum (Great meteor)
1889 – 1890 AD: Second Lushai Expedition by British Colonial Army (Vailen/Vailian vawi hnih (2) na.
1889 (January) AD: British Army reached  Lunglei and they built a timber stockade known as 'Fort Lungleh'
1889 (3rd April) AD: Mizo Chiefs – Saipuia, Lalthangvunga, Lallunga, Sangliana, Lalruma took a pledge of loyalty to the British colonial government.
1890 (24th/25th  September) AD:  The famous Mizo warriors( Pasaltha) - Khuangchera and Ngurbawka were shot death by British army.
1890 (December) AD: Mizo Chiefs in western areas  surrendered to British army.
1890 AD: British colonial army started their permanent occupation in the then Lushai Hills (Mizoram).

Source:  B. Lalthangliana, India, Burma leh Bangladesh-a Mizo Chanchin (History and Culture of Mizo in India, Burma and Bangladesh). Published by Remkungi, Printed by RTM Press, Chhinga Veng, Aizawl, Mizoram, First Edition, 2001,

Mizoram landscape during Autumn, Hmuifang tlang.

Thursday, July 11, 2013

Colours in English - Mizo tawng (Translation)

Mizoram landscape - Evening scene of Sialsuk village

Let's learn Colours in Mizo tawng (Language):

English: Colour/Color
Mizo tawng: Rawng

English: Black
Mizo tawng: Dum
Example: English: Please give the black colour, Mizo tawng: Khawngaihin a rawng dum kha min lo pe

English: Blue
Mizo tawng: Dumpawl
Example: English: I like blue than black, Mizo tawng: Rawng dum ai chuan a dumpawl ka duh zawk

English: Brown
Mizo tawng: Buang
Example: English: This dog is brown, Mizo tawng: He ui hi a buang a ni.

English: Cream
Mizo tawng: Bawnghnute rawng

English: Grey
Mizo tawng: Vut rawng

English: Green
Mizo tawng: Hring

English: Indigo
Mizo tawng: Tring rawng

English: Maroon
Mizo tawng: Sen uk

English: Orange
Mizo tawng: Serthlum rawng

English: Pink
Mizo tawng: Sendal

English: Purple
Mizo tawng: Senduk

English: Red
Mizo tawng: Sen/Senlar

English: Violet
Mizo tawng: Nawinawk

English: White
Mizo tawng: Var

English: Yellow
Mizo tawng: Eng
Example: English: Yellow is my favourite colour, Mizo tawng: Rawng eng hi ka rawng ngainat a ni/ A eng hi ka ngaina ber.

English: Zebra colour/Mix colour
Mizo tawng: Rawng Trial, rawg inchawhpawlh, rang

English: Khaki
Mizo tawng: Uk, buang

Bonus words: English: God gives us different  skin colours, Mizo tawng: Pathian in vun rawng chi hrang hrang min pe.

Useful links English- Mizo tawng:
English - Mizo animal names
English - Mizo numbers
English - Mizo vegetables & crops
English - Mizo relationship 
Mizo - English Useful words